Consumer Protection act -1986 (उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम)

परिचय (Introduction)

The Consumer Protection Act was passed in 24th December, 1986 for the better protection of the interest of consumers and to make provisions for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s dispute and for matters connected therewith. 

उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम के अनुसार उपभोक्ता के अधिकार (It Empowers the consumer with the Right to) 

सुरक्षा (Safety)

चयन (Choose)  

निवारण (Redressal) 

सूचना (Information) 

सुनवाई (Be Heard) 

उपभोक्ता शिक्षा (Consumer education) 

As per the Consumer Protection Rules, 1987, a complaint filed in the Consumer Forum/ Commission shall be decided within a period of 90 days from the date of notice by opposite party.

हिन्दी में अनुवाद
Consumer Protection Rules, 1987 के अनुसार, उपभोक्ता फोरम / आयोग में दायर की गई शिकायत पर opposite party द्वारा नोटिस की तारीख से 90 दिनों की अवधि के भीतर निर्णय लिया जाएगा ।

The maximum time limit for a claim to be filed under CPA is 2 years from the date of occurrence of the cause of action. There are no court fees to be paid to file a complaint in a Consumer Forum /Commission. 

Further, a complainant/opposite party can present his case on his own without the help of a lawyer.

वैद्यकीय व्यवसाय में उपभोक्ता (Consumer in Medical Profession) 

The service rendered by Medical Profession is covered under Consumer Protection Act and Deficiency of Service is Actionable. 

Holding medical practitioners, government hospitals / Nursing homes and private hospitals/ nursing homes fell into three categories:

where services are rendered free of charge to everybody

where charges are required to be paid by everyone; and 

where charges are required to be paid by persons availing of services but certain categories of persons who could not afford to pay were rendered service free of charge,

इस धारा के तहत डॉक्टरों/ अस्पतालों की निम्नलिखित श्रेणियाँ शामिल है 
(It has included the following categories of doctors/hospitals under this Section): 

1. All medical/dental practitioners doing independent medical/dental practiće unless rendering only free service. 

2. Private hospitals charging all patients. 

3. All hospitals having free as well as paying patients and all the paying and free category patients receiving treatment in such hospitals. 

4. Medical/dental practitioners and hospitals paid by an insurance firm for the treatment of a client or an employment for that of an employee.

शिकायत दर्ज करने का तरीका (Lodging a complaint)
स्वरूप (Format) लिखित (Written)
व्यक्ति (Person) शिकायतकर्ता या प्रतिनिधि
स्थान (Place)उपभोक्ता विवाद निवारण मंच 
(Consumer-Dispute Redressal Fora)
शुल्क (Fee)नाममात्र (Nominal)
अंतिम फल (Fate)स्वीकार या अस्वीकार (Accepted or Dismissed)
उपभोक्ता विवाद निवारण मंच (Consumer Disputes Redressal forum)
जिला (District forum) Jurisdiction :- Upto Rs. 20 lakhs 
Composition :- President + 2 Members 
Powers :- Examines complaints Issues
notices Orders analysis/tests/Conducts
hearings Award damages 
राज्य आयोग 
(State commission)
Jurisdiction :- From 20 lakhs Up to 1 Crore
Composition :- President + 2 Members
Power :- Similar to district forum + Hearing of appeals 
राष्ट्रीय आयोग
(National commission)
Jurisdiction :- > Rs. 1 Crore 
Composition :- President + 4 members 
Powers :- Similar to State forum + Hearing of appeals 


व्यावसायिक वैद्यकीय लापरवाही (Professional medical negligence):

परिभाषा (Definition): Absence or lack of reasonable care or skill or knowledge or willful negligence by the medical practitioner during the treatment of the patient lead physical, mental or financial damage or endanger of life.

व्यावसायिक वैद्यकीय लापरवाही के प्रकार (Types of Professional Negligence) :-

दीवानी (Civil Negligence)

फौजदारी (Criminal Negligence)

सामूहिक (Corporate Negligence)

In general a doctor’s innocence is presumed- The complainant has to prove negligence.

व्यावसायिक वैद्यकीय लापरवाही का सबूत (Proof of Professional Medical Negligence) :-

The essentials of negligence are four “D”s:

चिकित्सक का रोगी के प्रति कर्तव्य निश्चित होना  (There was a Duty towards patients)

चिकित्सक के कर्त्तव्य मे कमी होना (There was Deficiency in duty)

चिकित्सक के कर्त्तव्य मे कमी का सीधा सम्बन्ध होना (This Directly resulted in Causa causans)

रोगी या रिश्तेदारों को शारीरिक, मानसिक या वित्तीय नुकसान होना (Damage which may be physical, mental or financial loss to patient or relatives)

रेस इप्सा लोक्विटुर (Res Ipsa Loquitur) 

त्रुटि इतनी स्वयं स्पष्ट है कि डॉक्टर को उसकी बेगुनाही साबित करना होगा (Error is so self evident that the doctor has to prove his innocence.) 

उदाहरण- बाएं पैर के बजाय दाहीना पैर का विच्छेदन करना (Amputation of right leg instead of left leg). 

प्रतिनिधिक दायित्व (Vicarious Liability) :-  (Liability for another’s act.) 

डॉक्टर अपनी ही नहीं बल्कि अपने कर्मचारियों की लापरवाही के लिए भी जिम्मेदार होता है ।

(A doctor is responsible for not only his own negligence but also for the negligence of his employees, if such an act occurs under his direct supervision, by the principle of Respondent Superior.)

व्यावसायिक वैद्यकीय लापरवाही एवं व्यावसायिक दुराचार मे भेद (Difference between Professional Negligence & Professional Misconduct)

व्यावसायिक वैद्यकीय लापरवाही
(Professional Negligence)
व्यावसायिक दुराचार
(Professional Misconduct)
1.It concerns duties Doctors towards his PatientsIt concerns violation of codes and Ethics of Doctors
2. There should be dereliction of duty in the treatment causing some damage of the patientThere need not be any dereliction of duty causing some damage of the patient
3. Charge against erring Doctor is brought before a court of lawCharge against erring Doctor is brought before a state a State medical council
4. May be punished as per Indian Panel Code (IPC)Name of the Doctor may be erased from Medical Council Register
5. Appeal cases are lodged with the high courtAppeals are made to the central Govt.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *