Adverse drug effect –
Any undesirable effect of drug.
Skeletal muscle Relaxant –
Act at periphery at neuro muscular junction/centrally at cerebrospinal axis and decrease muscle tone.
– By local application cause reversible loss of sensory Perception
– They block both generation and conduction of nerve impulses. With out causing any structural damage.
Pharyngeal demuslcent –
Sooth the throat and reduce Afreen impulses from the inflamed pharyngeal mucosa (use full inn dry cough_.
Expectorant (mucokinetics) –
Increase bronchial secretion and reduce its viscosity. Facilitating its removal by coughing.
Antitussive Acts on
CNS – > Thresh hold of cough centre
Peripherally – < tussah impulse in respiratory tract.
Cardinal features of General Anesthesia
– Loss of all sensation
– Muscle Relaxation
– Abolition of Reflexes
Sub dues excitement and calm the subject with out inducing sleep.
Induce/maintain the sleep.
Cardiac glycosides –
Increases myocardial contractility and output in a hypoynamic heart with out increase in oxygen consumption.
with out increase in oxygen consumption.
Drugs which causes a net loss of Na and water in urine.
Factors required for formation of blood.
Drugs which lower the level of lipoprotein in blood.
Drugs which promote the expulsion of gasses from g.i.t.
Causes elimination of soft but formed stool (milder action).
Causes more fluid evacuation (Stroonger Action).
Chelating Agent –
Drugs which complex with the metallic ions (useful in heavy metal poisoning )
Non energy producing organic compounds essential for human metabolism.
Cholinergic Agonist –
Acetylcholine, carbacol, muscadine, pilocarpine.
Atropine, Hyoscine, Hematropine, hyoscine butyl bromide
(A) Mydriatics = Cyclopentolate, Tropicamide
(B) Antisecretory / Antispasmodic-
Propantheline, Dicyclomine, pirenzepin, Telenzepine
(C) Anti Parkinsonian – Hexamethonium
Ganglionic blocking –
Adrenergic drugs –
(A) Pressure Agent – Nor adrenaline, dopamine, phenylephrine
(B) Cardiac stimulant – Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, Ephedrine, Doubutaminne
(C) Bronchodilators – Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol
(D) Nasal decongestant – Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrinne, Phenyl Propanolamine, Nephazoline
(E) CNS stimulant – Ephedrine, Amphetamine, Dexamphetaminne
(F) Anorectic – Fenfuramine
(G) Uterine relaxant – Isosuprine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline
alpha- Adrenergic Blocker –
Non- competitive – phenoxybenzamine
(A) Non -selective = Ergotamine, diahydro ergotamine,Phentolamine, chlorpremazine.
(B) Selective = (alpha1 blocker = Prazosin, Terazosin
(Alpha 2 blocker = Yohimbine
Beta – Adrenergic Blocker –
Non-selective (B1ß2) = Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol, Pindolol, Labetalol, Carvediol.
Selective ß, Blocker = Metoprolol, Atenolol
Muscle Relaxant —
1. Neuro muscular blocking –
a. Non-depolarizing = d-tubocuramine, Gallamine Triethiodide, vecuronium, Atracurium, mivacurium
b. Depolarizing blocker = Succynyl cholin, Decamethonium
2. Direct acting = Dendrolene sodium, Quinine
Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxant –
Mephenesin group = Maphenesin, chlorzoxazone, methocarbamol,
Benzo diazepines = Diazepam
GABA derivatives = Baclofen
Local Anaesthetics –
Procaine, chlorprocaine, Lidocaine (Lignocaine), Bupivacaine, Cinchocaine, Benzocain.
1. Pharyngeal demulcents = Glycerine, liquorice