Pharmacology 2

Adverse drug effect –

Any undesirable effect of drug.

Skeletal muscle Relaxant –

Act at periphery at neuro muscular junction/centrally at cerebrospinal axis and decrease muscle tone.

Local Anesthetics-

– By local application cause reversible loss of sensory Perception
– They block both generation and conduction of nerve impulses. With out causing any structural damage.

Pharyngeal demuslcent –

Sooth the throat and reduce Afreen impulses from the inflamed pharyngeal mucosa (use full inn dry cough_.

Expectorant (mucokinetics) –

Increase bronchial secretion and reduce its viscosity. Facilitating its removal by coughing.

Antitussive Acts on

CNS – > Thresh hold of cough centre
Peripherally – < tussah impulse in respiratory tract.

Cardinal features of General Anesthesia

– Loss of all sensation
– Unconsciousness
– Muscle Relaxation
– Abolition of Reflexes

Sedative —

Sub dues excitement and calm the subject with out inducing sleep.

Hypnotic –

Induce/maintain the sleep.

Cardiac glycosides –

Increases myocardial contractility and output in a hypoynamic heart with out increase in oxygen consumption.
with out increase in oxygen consumption.

Diuretics –

Drugs which causes a net loss of Na and water in urine.

Haematinics –

Factors required for formation of blood.

Hypolopidamic drugs-

Drugs which lower the level of lipoprotein in blood.

Carminative –

Drugs which promote the expulsion of gasses from g.i.t.

Laxative/Aperient –

Causes elimination of soft but formed stool (milder action).

Purgative –

Causes more fluid evacuation (Stroonger Action).

Chelating Agent –

Drugs which complex with the metallic ions (useful in heavy metal poisoning )


Non energy producing organic compounds essential for human metabolism.

Cholinergic Agonist –

Acetylcholine, carbacol, muscadine, pilocarpine.

Anticholinergics/Atropinic –

Atropine, Hyoscine, Hematropine, hyoscine butyl bromide

Synthetic Anticholinerggics-

(A) Mydriatics = Cyclopentolate, Tropicamide
(B) Antisecretory / Antispasmodic-
Propantheline, Dicyclomine, pirenzepin, Telenzepine
(C) Anti Parkinsonian – Hexamethonium

Ganglionic blocking –


Adrenergic drugs –

(A) Pressure Agent – Nor adrenaline, dopamine, phenylephrine
(B) Cardiac stimulant – Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, Ephedrine, Doubutaminne
(C) Bronchodilators – Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol
(D) Nasal decongestant – Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrinne, Phenyl Propanolamine, Nephazoline
(E) CNS stimulant – Ephedrine, Amphetamine, Dexamphetaminne
(F) Anorectic – Fenfuramine
(G) Uterine relaxant – Isosuprine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline

alpha- Adrenergic Blocker –

Non- competitive – phenoxybenzamine
Competitve —
(A) Non -selective = Ergotamine, diahydro ergotamine,Phentolamine, chlorpremazine.
(B) Selective = (alpha1 blocker = Prazosin, Terazosin
(Alpha 2 blocker = Yohimbine

Beta – Adrenergic Blocker –

Non-selective (B1ß2) = Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol, Pindolol, Labetalol, Carvediol.
Selective ß, Blocker = Metoprolol, Atenolol

Muscle Relaxant —

1. Neuro muscular blocking –
a. Non-depolarizing = d-tubocuramine, Gallamine Triethiodide, vecuronium, Atracurium, mivacurium
b. Depolarizing blocker = Succynyl cholin, Decamethonium

2. Direct acting = Dendrolene sodium, Quinine

Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxant –

Mephenesin group = Maphenesin, chlorzoxazone, methocarbamol,
Benzo diazepines = Diazepam
GABA derivatives = Baclofen

Local Anaesthetics –

Procaine, chlorprocaine, Lidocaine (Lignocaine), Bupivacaine, Cinchocaine, Benzocain.

1. Pharyngeal demulcents = Glycerine, liquorice


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