In Vitro = Heparin, Sodium citrate, Sodium oxylate, Sodium acetate
In Vivo = Heparin, dicumarol, warfarin,

Phenindione Hypolipidaemic drugs

Lovastatin, Simvastatine, Cholestipol, Clofibrate, Gemfibrozil, Nicotinic Acid, Probucol, Neomycin, Gugu lipid

Drugs for Peptic ulcer

(1) Reduce Gastric Acid Secretion
(a) Hz Anti-histamines = cimetidine; Ranitidine, ‘Famotidine
(b) Protone Pump Inhibitor = Omeprazol, Lansoprazole, Penta prozol
(c) Anti-cholinergics = Pirenzepine, Propanthaline
(d) Prostaglandin analogues = Misoprostol

(2) Neutralizing the gastric acid (Antacid)
—Systemic = Sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate
—Non-systemic = Magnesium hydroxide, MgCO3, Al(OH)3, Megaldrate, CaCO3

(3) Ulcer Protective = Sucralfate, Colloidal bismuth sub citrate

(4) Ulcer healing = Carbenoxolone sodium, liquorice

(5) Anti Helecobactor Pylorri = Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, Metronidazole, Tinidazole

Anti Emetics

Anti-cholinergics = Hyocine, Dicylcomine
H1 Anti-histaminics = Promethazine, Cyclizine, Meclizine
Neuroleptic = Chlorpremazine, Prochlorperazine
Prokinetic drugs – Metoclopramide, Domperidone, cisepride
5-HT3 Antagonist = Ondansetron, Granisetron

Carminatives = Sodium biacarbonate, Oil pippermint, oil of dil

Bulk forming = Dietary Fiber (Bran), Psyllium (Plantago): Methy cellulose
Stool softner = Docusates
Lubricant = Liquid Paraffin
Stimulant Purgative = Phenolphtheline, Bisacodyl, Senna, Cascara Sagrada, Castor Oil
Osmotic Purgative = Magnesium/Sodium Salts, Lectulose

Anti Parkinsonian drugs

Levodopa, Bromochritin, Lisuride, Pergolide, Carbidopa, AmantadineSeleginil, Benzhexol, orphandrine, Promethazine.

Drug of Choice –

Typhoid = Chloramphenicol / ciprofloxacine
Diphtheria = Erythromycine
Anthrax = Penicilline
Plague = Streptomyciné

= Tetracycline Giardiasis = Tinidazole Enterobious = Mebendazole Tinia solium = Niclosamide Leprosy = Dapsone Sulfapyridine Anaphylaxis = Adrenaline Asthmatic Attack = Adrenaline Supra ventricular tachycardia = verapamil Ventricular fibrillation = D. C. Shock Angina – Glyceryl trinitrate Complete heart block = Isoprenaline Chronic myeloid leukemia = Busulphan Chronic Lymphoid leukamia = Chlorambucil Aplastic Anemia.= bone marrow transplantation, Carcinoma Prostate = Honvan Gout – Acute Attack = Colchicin

Prophylaxis | Chronic disease – Allopurinol Status Epilepticus = Diazepam. Barbiturate poisoning = Haemodialysis Motion sickness = Hyoscine

– Streptomycin = not absorbed – Penicillin and insulin = destroyed by digestive juices. – Nitroglycerine, Testosterone, lidocaine, Hydrocortisone,, Morphein = destroyed in liver

Only highly lipid soluble 

like = Nitroglycerin, Isoprenaline, Methyltestesterone, clonidine. Aminophyllines, Indomethacin, diazepam and ergotamine like drugs can be give by rectal route.

Tissue storage of some drugs

Emetin, Digoxin = skeletal muscle, Heart,
Emetin, Digoxin, chloroquine, tetracycline = liver,
Emetin, Digoxin, chloroquine = Kidney
Chlorpromazine, Acetazolamide, Isoniazide = Brain
lodine = Thyroid
Ephedrin, Atropin = Iris
Chloroquine = Retina
Tetracycline and Heavy metal = Bone and Teeth.
DDT Phenoxybenzamine, ether = Adipose tissues

Pro drug Active form
Levodopa. Dopamine
Enalapril. Enalaprilat
a-Methyl dopa. a-methyl norepinephrin
Benorylate. Asprin + Paracetamol
Bacampicillin. Ampicillin

Drugs excreted through urine and faeces = erythromycin, Ampicillin, Rifampin, Tetracyclinė, Oral Contraceptive Pills.

Excretion through saliva and sweat = Lithium, Pot lodide, – Thiocynate, Rifampicin, ‘Heavy metal.

Through milk – Theophylins, Sulfonylureas, Rifampin, ‘Ranitidin, Penicillin, Phenytoin, Nifedipine, Morphine Metronidazole, Metoclopramide, Ethambutol, Dapsone, Bromocriptin, Corticosteroids, Isoniazid, Aspirin, Anti-histaminics, Ampicillin/Amoxicilline, Acyclovir.
In neonates tubular system is not well developed so the duration of action is longer of some drugs like – penicillin,’ cephalosporin and Aspirin.

Plasma t *0.693 x V/C
1 13 * = 50% drug is eliminated 21,6
= 75% (50 + 25) is eliminated 31,5
= 87.5% (75+12 %) is eliminated 4 144
= 93.75% (87.5+6.25) is eliminated
– thus drug elimination occurs in compléte 4-5 ty
tyy of some important drugs – Penicillin = 30 minute
Doxycycline = 20 Hrs.
Aspirin = 4 Hrs
Digoxin = 40 hrs.
Digitoxin = 7 days

Therapeutic Index = LD 50 or Median lethal dose
ED 50 Median effective dose
Therapeutic range = Gap between minimal therapeutic effect and maxima!’ acceptable adverse effect.
Individual drug dose –
(A) Body weight (kg.). Average Adult dose /70
(B) Body surface Area (m²) x Average Adult dose /17


Leave a Reply

Avatar placeholder

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *