- It occurs when two or more adjacent ribs are segmentally fractured in two or more places.
- There is hypoventilation (carbon dioxide retention and respiratory failure)
- Pulmonary toilet : exercises and procedures that help to clear your airways of mucus and other secretions.
- Tube thoracostomy : insertion of a thin plastic tube into the pleural space (the area between the chest wall and lungs.)
- The tube is attached to a suction device to remove excess fluid or air.
PECTUS EXCAVATUM (FUNNEL CHEST OR SAUCER CHEST)
- The body of sternum, usually the lower end is curved backwards.
- The heart is displaced to the left and may be compresssed between the sternum and the vertebral column.
PECTUS CARINATUM (PIGEON CHEST)
- This is a malformation of the chest characterized by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.
- It is usually caused by rickets and severe bronchial asthma in childhood.
- An abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the pleura.
- Simple pneumothorax
- Open pneumothorax
- Tension pneumothorax
Simple pneumothorax :-
- It resolve without treatment and requires only monitoring.
Open pneumothorax :-
- Generally occurs due to penetrating thoracic trauma when the chest wall wound remains patent.
- Treatment : By closure of the wound, intercostal tube drainage (ICD) and surgery.
Tension pneumothorax :-
- It is an immediately life threatening injury that results when gas builds up under pressure within the pleural space after blunt or penetrating thoracic trauma.
- In this condition, respiratory gases may escape from the injured lung during each respiratory cycle or may be entrained into the pleural cavity from the outside during inspiration.
Tension pneumothorax should be treated by prompt needle thoracostomy.